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The AWS CloudHSM service helps you meet corporate, contractual, and regulatory compliance requirements for data security by using dedicated Hardware Security Module (HSM) instances within the AWS cloud.
AWS and AWS Marketplace partners offer a variety of solutions for protecting sensitive data within the AWS platform, but for some applications and data subject to contractual or regulatory mandates for managing cryptographic keys, additional protection may be necessary.
CloudHSM complements existing data protection solutions and allows you to protect your encryption keys within HSMs that are designed and validated to government standards for secure key management.
CloudHSM allows you to securely generate, store and manage cryptographic keys used for data encryption in a way that keys are accessible only by you.
A Hardware Security Module (HSM) provides secure key storage and cryptographic operations within a tamper-resistant hardware device.
HSMs are designed to securely store cryptographic key material and use the key material without exposing it outside the cryptographic boundary of the hardware.
You can use the CloudHSM service to support a variety of use cases and applications, such as database encryption, Digital Rights Management (DRM), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), authentication and authorization, document signing, and transaction processing.
Runs on a dedicated hardware device, single tenanted.
When you use the AWS CloudHSM service you create a CloudHSM Cluster.
Clusters can contain multiple HSM instances, spread across multiple Availability Zones in a region. HSM instances in a cluster are automatically synchronized and load balanced.
You receive dedicated, single-tenant access to each HSM instance in your cluster. Each HSM instance appears as a network resource in your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC).
Adding and removing HSMs from your Cluster is a single call to the AWS CloudHSM API (or on the command line using the AWS CLI).
After creating and initializing a CloudHSM Cluster, you can configure a client on your EC2 instance that allows your applications to use the cluster over a secure, authenticated network connection.
Must be within a VPC and can be accessed via VPC Peering.
Applications don’t need to be in the same VPC but the server or instance on which your application and the HSM client are running must have network (IP) reachability to all HSMs in the cluster.
Does not natively integrate with many AWS services like KMS, but instead requires custom application scripting.
The HSMs in your AWS CloudHSM cluster support quorum authentication, which is also known as M of N access control.
With quorum authentication, no single user on the HSM can do quorum-controlled operations on the HSM.
Instead, a minimum number of HSM users (at least 2) must cooperate to do these operations.
With quorum authentication, you can add an extra layer of protection by requiring approvals from more than one HSM user.
AWS CloudHSM Use Cases
Offload SSL/TLS processing from web servers.
Protect private keys for an issuing certificate authority (CA).
Store the master key for Oracle DB Transparent Data Encryption.
Custom key store for AWS KMS – retain control of the HSM that protects the master keys.
CloudHSM vs AWS KMS
The table below compares CloudHSM against KMS:
|Tenancy||Single-tenant HSM||Multi-tenant AWS service|
|Availability||Customer-managed durability and available||Highly available and durable key storage and management|
|Root of Trust||Customer managed root of trust||AWS managed root of trust|
|FIPS 140-2||Level 3||Level 2 / Level 3|
|3rd Party Support||Broad 3rd Party Support||Broad AWS service support|